lab sculpture created by Steve Lohman


Please visit our News page for press articles about our work!
Available in
PDF format:

• Dinc F, Shai A, Schnitzer M, Tanaka H. (2023) CORNN: Convex optimization of recurrent neural networks for rapid inference of neural dynamics. arXiv:2311.10200.

• Bowman AJ, Huang C, Schnitzer MJ, Kasevich MA. (2023) Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging of neuron spiking and subthreshold activity in vivo. Science. 380(6651):1270-1275. doi: 10.1126/science.adf9725.

• Nair A, Karigo T, Yang B, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ, Linderman SW, Anderson DJ, Kennedy A. (2023) An approximate line attractor in the hypothalamus encodes an aggressive state. Cell. 186(1):178-193.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.11.027.

• Kannan M, Vasan G, Haziza S, Huang C, Chrapkiewicz R, Luo J, Cardin JA, Schnitzer MJ, Pieribone VA. (2022) Dual-polarity voltage imaging of the concurrent dynamics of multiple neuron types. Science. 378(6619):eabm8797. doi: 10.1126/science.abm8797. Epub 2022 Nov 4.

• Hazon O, Minces VH, Tomŕs DP, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ, Jercog PE. (2022) Noise correlations in neural ensemble activity limit the accuracy of hippocampal spatial representations. Nat Commun. 13(1):4276. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-31254-y.

Ebrahimi S, Lecoq J, Rumyantsev O, Tasci T, Zhang Y, Irimia C, Li J, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ. (2022) Emergent reliability in sensory cortical coding and inter-area communication. Nature. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04724-y. Online ahead of print. See accompanying News and Views.

• National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2022. Physics of Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

• Kim TH, Schnitzer MJ. (2022) Fluorescence imaging of large-scale neural ensemble dynamics. Cell. 185(1):9-41.

• Farrell JS, Lovett-Barron M, Klein PM, Sparks FT, Gschwind T, Ortiz AL, Ahanonu B, Bradbury S, Terada S, Oijala M, Hwaun E, Dudok B, Szabo G, Schnitzer MJ, Deisseroth K, Losonczy A, Soltesz I. (2021) Supramammillary regulation of locomotion and hippocampal activity. Science. 374(6574):1492-1496. doi: 10.1126/science.abh4272.

• Fischler-Ruiz W, Clark DG, Joshi N, Devi-Chou V, Kitch L, Schnitzer M, Abbott LF, Axel R. (2021) Olfactory landmarks and path integration converge to form a cognitive spatial map. Neuron. 109(24):4036-4049.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.09.055. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

• Shuster SA, Wagner MJ, Pan-Doh N, Ren J, Grutzner SM, Beier KT, Kim TH, Schnitzer MJ, Luo L. (2021) The relationship between birth timing, circuit wiring, and physiological response properties of cerebellar granule cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jun 8;118(23):e2101826118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2101826118.

• Wagner MJ, Savall J, Hernandez O, Mel G, Inan H, Rumyantsev O, Lecoq J, Kim TH, Li JZ, Ramakrishnan C, Deisseroth, K, Luo L, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ. (2021) A neural circuit state change underlying skilled movements. Cell. 184, 1–17. DOI:

Inan H, Schmuckermair C, Tasci T, Ahanonu B, Hernandez O, Lecoq J, Dinc F, Wagner MJ, Erdogdu M, Schnitzer MJ. (2021) Fast and statistically robust cell extraction from large-scale neural calcium imaging datasets. bioRxiv 2021.03.24.436279; doi:

Cho KKA, Davidson TJ, Bouvier G, Marshall JD, Schnitzer MJ, Sohal VS. (2020) Cross-hemispheric gamma synchrony between prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons supports behavioral adaptation during rule shift learning. Nat Neurosci. 23(7):892-902.

Rumyantsev OI, Lecoq JA, Hernandez O, Zhang Y, Savall J, Chrapkiewicz R, Li J, Zeng H, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ. (2020) Fundamental bounds on the fidelity of sensory cortical coding. Nature. 580(7801):100-105.

Yao S, Yuan P, Ouellette B, Zhou T, Mortrud M, Balaram P, Chatterjee S, Wang Y, Daigle TL, Tasic B, Kuang X, Gong H, Luo Q, Zeng S, Curtright A, Dhaka A, Kahan A, Gradinaru V, Chrapkiewicz R, Schnitzer M, Zeng H, Cetin A. (2020) RecV recombinase system for in vivo targeted optogenomic modifications of single cells or cell populations. Nat Methods. 17(4):422-429.

Wagner MJ, Savall J, Kim TH, Schnitzer MJ, Luo L (2020) Skilled reaching tasks for head-fixed mice usinga robotic manipulandum. Nat Protoc. 15(3):1237-1254.

Chen X, Sanchez GN, Schnitzer MJ, Delp SL (2020) Microendoscopy detects altered muscular contractile dynamics in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci Rep. 10(1):457.

Villette V, Chavarha M, Dimov IK, Bradley J, Pradhan L, Mathieu B, Evans SW, Chamberland S, Shi D, Yang R, Kim BB, Ayon A, Jalil A, St-Pierre F, Schnitzer MJ, Bi G, Toth K, Ding J, Dieudonné S, Lin MZ (2019) Ultrafast Two-Photon Imaging of a High-Gain Voltage Indicator in Awake Behaving Mice. Cell. 79(7):1590-1608.e23.

Zhang T, Hernandez O, Chrapkiewicz R, Shai A, Wagner MJ, Zhang Y, Wu CH, Li JZ, Inoue M, Gong Y, Ahanonu B, Zeng H, Bito H, Schnitzer MJ (2019) Kilohertz two-photon brain imaging in awake mice. Nature Methods. 16:1119–1122.

Gründemann J, Bitterman Y, Lu T, Krabbe S, Grewe BF, Schnitzer MJ, Lüthi A. (2019) Amygdala ensembles encode behavioral states. Science. 364(6437). pii: eaav8736.

Wagner MJ, Kim TH, Kadmon J, Nguyen ND, Ganguli S, Schnitzer MJ, Luo L. (2019) Shared Cortex-Cerebellum Dynamics in the Execution and Learning of a Motor Task. Cell. 177(3):669-682.e24.

Corder G, Ahanonu B, Grewe BF, Wang D, Schnitzer MJ, Scherrer G. (2019) An amygdalar neural ensemble that encodes the unpleasantness of pain. Science. 363(6424):276-281.

Kannan M, Vasan G, Huang C, Haziza S, Li JZ, Inan H, Schnitzer MJ, Pieribone VA (2018) Fast, in vivo voltage imaging using a red fluorescent indicator. Nat Methods. 15(12):1108-1116.

Attardo A, Lu J, Kawashima T, Okuno H, Fitzgerald JE, Bito H, Schnitzer MJ. (2018) Long-Term Consolidation of Ensemble Neural Plasticity Patterns in Hippocampal Area CA1. Cell Rep. 25(3):640-650.e2.

Wang T, Ouzounov DG, Wu C, Horton NG, Zhang B, Wu CH, Zhang Y, Schnitzer MJ, Xu C. (2018) Three-photon imaging of mouse brain structure and function through the intact skull. Nat Methods. 15(10):789-792.

Kondo T, Saito R, Otaka M, Yoshino-Saito K, Yamanaka A, Yamamori T, Watakabe A, Mizukami H, Schnitzer MJ, Tanaka KF, Ushiba J, Okano H (2018) Calcium Transient Dynamics of Neural Ensembles in the Primary Motor Cortex of Naturally Behaving Monkeys. Cell Rep. 24(8):2191-2195.e4.

Williams AH, Kim TH, Wang F, Vyas S, Ryu SI, Shenoy KV, Schnitzer M, Kolda TG, Ganguli S. (2018) Unsupervised Discovery of Demixed, Low-Dimensional Neural Dynamics across Multiple Timescales through Tensor Component Analysis. Neuron. 98(6):1099-1115.e8.

Parker JG, Marshall JD, Ahanonu B, Wu YW, Kim TH, Grewe BF, Zhang Y, Li JZ, Ding JB, Ehlers MD, Schnitzer MJ. (2018) Diametric neural ensemble dynamics in parkinsonian and dyskinetic states. Nature. 557(7704):177-182. See accompanying News and Views.

Huang C, Maxey JR, Sinha S, Savall J, Gong Y, Schnitzer MJ. (2018) Long-term optical brain imaging in live adult fruit flies. Nature Communications. 9:872.

Inan, H., Erdogdu, M.A., Schnitzer, M.J. (2017). “Robust Estimation of Neural Signals in Calcium Imaging.” Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 30 (NIPS 2017).

Li Y, Mathis A, Grewe BF, Osterhout JA, Ahanonu B, Schnitzer MJ, Murthy VN, Dulac C. (2017) Neuronal Representation of Social Information in the Medial Amygdala of Awake Behaving Mice. Cell. 171(5):1176-1190.e17.

Remedios R, Kennedy A, Zelikowsky M, Grewe BF, Schnitzer MJ, Anderson DJ. (2017) Social behaviour shapes hypothalamic neural ensemble representations of conspecific sex. Nature. 550(7676):388-392.

Grewe BF, Gründemann J, Kitch LJ, Lecoq JA, Parker JG, Marshall JD, Larkin MC, Jercog PE, Grenier F, Li JZ, Lüthi A, Schnitzer MJ. (2017) Neural ensemble dynamics underlying a long-term associative memory. Nature. 543(7647):670-675.

Wagner MJ, Kim TH, Savall J, Schnitzer MJ, Luo L. (2017) Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward. Nature. 544(7648):96-100.

Kim TH, Zhang Y, Lecoq J, Jung JC, Li J, Zeng H, Niell CM, Schnitzer MJ. (2016) Long-Term Optical Access to an Estimated One Million Neurons in the Live Mouse Cortex. Cell Rep. 17(12):3385-3394.

Marshall JD, Li JZ, Zhang Y, Gong Y, St-Pierre F, Lin MZ, Schnitzer MJ. (2016) Cell-Type-Specific Optical Recording of Membrane Voltage Dynamics in Freely Moving Mice. Cell. 167(6):1650-62.

Xu C, Krabbe S, Gründemann J, Botta P, Fadok JP, Osakada F, Saur D, Grewe BF, Schnitzer MJ, Callaway EM, Lüthi A. (2016) Distinct Hippocampal Pathways Mediate Dissociable Roles of Context in Memory Retrieval. Cell. 167(4):961-972.

Chen X, Sanchez GN, Schnitzer MJ, Delp SL. (2016). Changes in sarcomere lengths of the human vastus lateralis muscle with knee flexion measured using in vivo microendoscopy. J Biomech. 49(13):2989-2994.

Lin MZ, Schnitzer MJ. (2016). Genetically encoded indicators of neuronal activity. Nature Neurosci. 19(9):1142-1153.

Jercog P, Rogerson T, Schnitzer MJ. (2016) Large-Scale Fluorescence Calcium-Imaging Methods for Studies of Long-Term Memory in Behaving Mammals. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 8(5):a021824.

Sanchez GN, Sinha S, Liske H, Chen X, Nguyen V, Delp SL, Schnitzer MJ. (2015) In Vivo Imaging of Human Sarcomere Twitch Dynamics in Individual Motor Units. Neuron. 88(6):1109–1120. See accompanying Neuron Previews.

Gong Y, Huang C, Li JZ, Grewe BF, Zhang Y, Eismann S, Schnitzer MJ. (2015) High-speed recording of neural spikes in awake mice and flies with a fluorescent voltage sensor. Science. 350(6266):1361-1366.

Kitamura T, Sun C, Martin J, Kitch LJ, Schnitzer MJ, Tonegawa S. (2015) Entorhinal Cortical Ocean Cells Encode Specific Contexts and Drive Context-Specific Fear Memory. Neuron. 87(6):1317-31.

Adamantidis A, et al. (2015) Optogenetics: 10 years after ChR2 in neurons-views from the community. Nat Neurosci. 18(9):1202-12.

Sun C, Kitamura T, Yamamoto J, Martin J, Pignatelli M, Kitch LJ, Schnitzer MJ, Tonegawa S. (2015) Distinct speed dependence of entorhinal island and ocean cells, including respective grid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(30):9466-71.

Attardo A, Fitzgerald JE, Schnitzer MJ. (2015) Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus. Nature. 523(7562):592-6.

Savall J, Ho ET, Huang C, Maxey JR, Schnitzer MJ. (2015) Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation. Nat Methods. 12(7):657-60.

Jorgenson LA et al. (2015) The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery. Philos Trans R Soc B. 370(1668):20140164.

Hamel EJ, Grewe BF, Parker JG, Schnitzer MJ. (2015) Cellular Level Brain Imaging in Behaving Mammals: An Engineering Approach. Neuron. 86(1):140-159.

Barretto RP, Gillis-Smith S, Chandrashekar J, Yarmolinsky DA, Schnitzer MJ, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. (2015) The neural representation of taste quality at the periphery. Nature. 517(7543):373-6. (Epub 2014)

Lecoq J, Savall J, Vucinic D, Grewe BF, Kim H, Li JZ, Kitch LJ, Schnitzer MJ. (2014) Visualizing mammalian brain area interactions by dual-axis two-photon calcium imaging. Nat Neurosci. 17(12):1825-9.

Gong Y, Wagner MJ, Zhong Li J, Schnitzer MJ. (2014) Imaging neural spiking in brain tissue using FRET-opsin protein voltage sensors. Nat Commun. 5:3674.

St-Pierre F, Marshall JD, Yang Y, Gong Y, Schnitzer MJ, Lin MZ. (2014) High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor. Nat Neurosci. 17(6):884-9.

Wetmore DZ, Jirenhed DA, Rasmussen A, Johansson F, Schnitzer MJ, Hesslow G. (2014) Bidirectional Plasticity of Purkinje Cells Matches Temporal Features of Learning. J Neurosci. 34(5):1731-1737.

Deisseroth K, Schnitzer MJ. (2013) Engineering Approaches to Illuminating Brain Structure and Dynamics. Neuron. 80(3):568-77.

Sinha S, Liang L, Ho ET, Urbanek KE, Luo L, Baer TM, Schnitzer MJ. (2013) High-speed laser microsurgery of alert fruit flies for fluorescence imaging of neural activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(46):18374-9.

Cromie MJ, Sanchez GN, Schnitzer MJ, Delp SL. (2013) Sarcomere lengths in human extensor carpi radialis brevis measured by microendoscopy. Muscle Nerve. 48(2):286-92.

Freifeld L, Clark DA, Schnitzer MJ, Horowitz MA, Clandinin TR. (2013) GABAergic lateral interactions tune the early stages of visual processing in Drosophila. Neuron. 78(6):1075-89.

Gong Y, Li JZ, and Schnitzer MJ. (2013) Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66959.

Marshall JD and Schnitzer MJ. (2013) Optical Strategies for Sensing Neuronal Voltage Using Quantum Dots and Other Semiconductor Nanocrystals. ACS Nano, 7(5):4601-9.

Alivisatos AP, et al. (2013) Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping. ACS Nano, 7:1850–66.

Ziv Y, Burns LD, Cocker ED, Hamel EO, Ghosh KK, Kitch LJ, El Gamal A, and Schnitzer MJ. (2013) Long-term dynamics of CA1 hippocampal place codes. Nature Neuroscience. 16(3):264-6. See accompanying Movie.

Wilt BA, Fitzgerald JE, and Schnitzer MJ. (2013) Photon Shot Noise Limits on Optical Detection of Neuronal Spikes and Estimation of Spike Timing. Biophys J. 104(1):51-62.

Prakash R, Yizhar O, Grewe B, Ramakrishnan C, Wang N, Goshen I, Packer AM, Peterka DS, Yuste R, Schnitzer MJ, and Deisseroth K. (2012) Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation. Nat Methods. 9(12):1171-9.

Barretto RP and Schnitzer MJ. (2012) In vivo microendoscopy of the hippocampus. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012(10):1092-9.

Barretto RP and Schnitzer MJ. (2012) In Vivo Optical Microendoscopy for Imaging Cells Lying Deep within Live Tissue. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012(10):1029-34.

Mukamel EA and Schnitzer MJ. (2012) Unified Resolution Bounds for Conventional and Stochastic Localization Fluorescence Microscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16):168102.

Lam AJ, St-Pierre F, Gong Y, Marshall JD, Cranfill PJ, Baird MA, McKeown MR, Wiedenmann J, Davidson MW, Schnitzer MJ, Tsien RY, Lin MZ. (2012) Improving FRET dynamic range with bright green and red fluorescent proteins. Nature Methods. 9(10):1005-12.

Fitzgerald JE, Lu J, Schnitzer MJ. (2012) Estimation Theoretic Measure of Resolution for Stochastic Localization Microscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(4):048102.

Ghosh KK, Burns LD, Cocker ED, Nimmerjahn A, Ziv Y, Gamal AE, Schnitzer MJ. (2011) Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope. Nat Methods. 8(10):871-8. See accompanying Photo.

Lecoq J, Schnitzer MJ. (2011) An infrared fluorescent protein for deeper imaging. Nat Biotechnol. 29(8):715-6.

Fitzgerald, JE, Katsov, AY, Clandinin, TR, Schnitzer, MJ. (2011) Symmetries in stimulus statistics shape the form of
visual motion estimators. PNAS. 108(31):12909-14.

Clark DA, Bursztyn L, Horowitz MA, Schnitzer MJ, Clandinin TR. (2011) Defining the computational structure of the motion detector in Drosophila. Neuron. 70(6):1165-77.

Barretto RP, Schnitzer MJ. (2011) "In Vivo Optical Microendoscopy for Imaging Cells Lying Deep within Live Tissue" in Imaging: A Laboratory Manual, ed. Rafael Yuste, Columbia University (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press).

Barretto RP, Ko TH, Jung JC, Wang TJ, Capps G, Waters AC, Ziv Y, Attardo A, Recht L, Schnitzer MJ. (2011) Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy. Nat Med. 17(2):223-8. See accompanying Cover Image.

Schnitzer MJ. (2010) Journal club. A neuroscientist learns about algorithms for motor learning. Nature. 463(7279):273.

Mukamel EA, Nimmerjahn A, Schnitzer MJ. (2009) Automated analysis of cellular signals from large-scale calcium imaging data. Neuron. 63(6):747-60. Supplemental tools: Cell Sorting Software Toolbox.

Piyawattanametha W, Cocker ED, Burns LD, Barretto RP, Jung JC, Ra H, Solgaard O, Schnitzer MJ. (2009) In vivo brain imaging using a portable 2.9 g two-photon microscope based on a microelectromechanical systems scanning mirror. Opt Lett. 34(15):2309-11.

Wilt BA, Burns LD, Wei Ho ET, Ghosh KK, Mukamel EA, Schnitzer MJ. (2009) Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience. Annu Rev Neurosci. 32:435-506.

Barretto RPJ, Messerschmidt B, Schnitzer MJ. (2009) In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses. Nature Methods. 6(7):511-2.

Nimmerjahn A, Mukamel EA, Schnitzer MJ. (2009) Motor behavior activates Bergmann glial networks. Neuron. 62(3):400-12.

Flusberg BA, Nimmerjahn A, Cocker ED, Mukamel EA, Barretto RP, Ko TH, Burns LD, Jung JC, Schnitzer MJ. (2008) High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice. Nat Methods. 5(11):935-8. See accompanying News and Views.

Wetmore DZ, Mukamel EA, Schnitzer MJ. (2008) Lock-and-key mechanisms of cerebellar memory recall based on rebound currents. J Neurophysiol 100(4): 2328-2347.

Llewellyn ME, Barretto RPJ, Delp SL & Schnitzer MJ. (2008) Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans. Nature. 454 784-788.

Miyawaki A and Schnitzer MJ. (2007) New technologies for neuroscience. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 17(5):565-6.

Deisseroth K, Feng G, Majewska AK, Miesenbock G, Ting A, Schnitzer MJ. (2006) Next-generation optical technologies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits. J Neurosci. 26(41):10380-6.

Piyawattanametha W, Barretto RP, Ko TH, Flusberg BA, Cocker ED, Ra H, Lee D, Solgaard O, Schnitzer MJ. (2006) Fast-scanning two-photon fluorescence imaging based on a microelectromechanical systems two- dimensional scanning mirror. Opt Lett. 31(13):2018-20.

Monfared A, Blevins NH, Cheung EL, Jung JC, Popelka G, Schnitzer MJ. (2006) In vivo imaging of mammalian cochlear blood flow using fluorescence microendoscopy. Otol Neurotol. 27(2):144-52.

Flusberg BA, Cocker ED, Piyawattanametha W, Jung JC, Cheung EL, Schnitzer MJ. (2005) Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging. Nat Methods. 2(12):941-50.

Flusberg BA, Jung JC, Cocker ED, Anderson EP, Schnitzer MJ. (2005) In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope. Opt Lett. 30(17):2272-4.

Shaevitz JW, Block SM, Schnitzer MJ. (2005) Statistical kinetics of macromolecular dynamics. Biophys J. 89(4):2277-85.

Mukamel EA, Schnitzer MJ. (2005) Retinal coding of visual scenes - repetitive and redundant too? Neuron. 46(3):357-9.

Jung JC, Mehta AD, Aksay E, Stepnoski R, Schnitzer MJ. (2004) In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy. J Neurophysiol. 92(5):3121-33.

Mehta AD, Jung JC, Flusberg BA, Schnitzer MJ. (2004) Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 14(5):617-28.

Jung JC, Schnitzer MJ. (2003) Multiphoton endoscopy. Opt Lett. 28(11):902-4.

Schnitzer MJ, Meister M. (2003) Multineuronal firing patterns in the signal from eye to brain. Neuron. 37(3):499-511.

Reed, William A., Man F. Yan, and Mark J. Schnitzer. Gradient-index fiber-optic microprobes for minimally invasive in vivo low-coherence interferometry. October 15, 2002. Optics Letters 27: 20.

Schnitzer MJ. (2002) Biological computation: amazing algorithms. Nature. 416(6882):683.

Schnitzer MJ. (2001) Molecular motors. Doing a rotary two-step. Nature. 410(6831):878-9, 881.

Schnitzer MJ, Visscher K, Block SM. (2000) Force production by single kinesin motors. Nat Cell Biol. 2(10):718-23.

Visscher K, Schnitzer MJ, Block SM. (1999) Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp. Nature. 400(6740):184-9.

Wang MD, Schnitzer MJ, Yin H, Landick R, Gelles J, Block SM. (1998) Force and velocity measured for single molecules of RNA polymerase. Science. 282(5390):902-7.

Schnitzer MJ, Block SM. (1997) Kinesin hydrolyses one ATP per 8-nm step. Nature. 388(6640):386-90.

Schnitzer, M.J . and Block, S.M. (1995). Statistical kinetics of processive enzymes. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 60: 793-802.

Schnitzer, M.J. (1993). Theory of continuum random walks and application to chemotaxis. Phys. Rev. E. 48: 2553-2568.

Schnitzer, M.J., Block, S.M, Berg, H.C., and Purcell, E.M. (1990). Strategies for chemotaxis. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. 46: 15-33.

Wen, X., Schnitzer, M.J., and Meyer, R.B. (1990). "An automated light scattering system scanning in two spherical dimensions." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61: 2069-2072.